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Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Sttlements:

Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age

Edited by
Jeannine Davis-Kimball
Eileen M. Murphy
Ludmila Koryakova and Leonid T. Yablonksy

BAR International Series 890

Oxford: Archeopress

2000

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Table of Contents


Introduction ....................................................................... ix
Jeannine Davis-Kimball


Part I. Eurasian Archaeological Theory ....................... 1
“Scythian Triad” and “Scythian World” .........................3
Leonid T. Yablonsky
Some Current Problems Concerning the History of Early Iron Age Eurasian Steppe Nomadic Societies....................... 9
Vladimir A. Bashilov and Leonid T. Yablonsky
Some Notes About the Material Culture of Eurasian Nomads ........................ 13
Ludmila Koryakova
Iron Age Nomadic Burials of the Eurasian Steppe: A Discussion Exploring Burial Ritual Complexity ........................ 19
Bryan Hanks


Part II. Archaeological Excavations.......................................31
Ancient Sanctuaries of the Aral and Caspian Regions: A Reconstruction of their History ..................................33
Valery S. Olkhovskiy
Excavations of the Aksai Kurgans in the Volga-Don Region (Russia).......................................................................... 43
A. N. Dyachenko, A. S. Skripkin, V. M. Klepikov, A. I. Kubyshkin, and A. Mabe
Burials and Settlements at the Eurasian Crossroads: Joint Franco-Russian Project............................................63
Ludmila Koryakova and Marie-Yvane Daire
With assistance of Patrice Courtaud, Esther Gonzalez, Andrew Kovrigin1, Luic Languet, Dominique Marguerie,
Dmitry Razhev, Svetlana Sharapova, and Marie-Celine Uge
The Environment of Iron Age Burials and Settlements at the Eurasian Crossroads (Urals, Russia):
Preliminary Results of the Charcoal Analysis of Anthropogenic Fires .................................75
Dominique Marguerie and Nancy Marcoux
The Kazakh-American Talgar Project Archaeological Field Surveys in the
Talgar and Turgen-Asi Areas of Southeastern Kazakhstan: 1997-1999 ............................ 83
Claudia Chang and Perry A. Tourtellotte
The Beiram Mound: A Nomadic Cultic Site in the Altai Mountains (Western Mongolia) ........................89
Jeannine Davis-Kimball


Part III. Interpretations of Eurasian Archaeology: The Bronze Age
.................................. 107
Bronze Age Textiles of the Caspian Sea Maritime Steppes .................................................... 109
Natalia I. Shishlina, Valery P. Golikov, and Olga V. Orfinskaya
The Eurasian Steppes: The Transition from Early Urbanism to Nomadism ......................... 118
Elena Kuzmina
Sintashta Burials and their Western European Counterparts ............................................... 126
Karlene Jones-Bley
The Sintashta “Chariots”.................................................................................................................. 135
Karlene Jones-Bley
Investigation of Bronze Age Metallurgical Slag ........................................................................141
S. A. Grigoryev


Part IV. The Iron Age .............................................................................................................................. 151
Historical and Archaeological Sources Relating to the Migration of Nomadic Peoples
Toward Central and Southern Europe During the Imperial Age (1st - 5th centuries AD)............................. 153
Paolo de Vingo
Early Iron Age Pastoral Nomadism in the Great Hungarian Plains:
Migration or Assimilation? The Thraco-Cimmerian Problem Revisited ................................ 160
Carola Metzner-Nebelsick
Intercultural Relations among Eurasian Pastoral Nomads: The Case of Northern Fennoscandia ....................185
Kjell–Åke Aronsson and Sven–Donald Hedman
A Comparative Study of the Early Iron Age Cultures in the Lower Volga and the Southern Urals Regions ............ 194
Maria A. Otchir-Goriaeva
Iron Age Ceramics of the Transurals ....,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. 207
Svetlana Sharapova
Looted Graves or Burials Without Bodies? ............................. 215

Part IV. (2)
Ann-Marie Kroll
Enarees and Women of High Status: Evidence of Ritual at Tillya Tepe (Northern Afghanistan) ......................223
Jeannine Davis-Kimball
From a Settled Way of Life to Nomadism ............................................................. 240
N. B. Vinogradov and V. Epimakhov
Variants in Models of Transition: The Cimmerian Traditions of the Gordion Tumuli (Phrygia):
Found in the Altai Barrows (Bashadar, Pazyryk) .......................................... 247
Leonid Marsadolov
“Animal Style” and Shamanism: Problems of Pictoral Tradition in Northern in Central Asia .......................... 259

(Part IV (3)
Burchard Brentjes
Post-Mortem Trepanations in Central Asia: Types and Trends ............................................ 269
Maria Mednikova
Mummification and Body Processing: Evidence from the Iron Age in Southern Siberia ................................... 279
Eileen M. Murphy
The Origins of the “Geometric Style” in Hsiung nu Art ................................................. 293

Part IV (4)
Sergey Minyaev
The Origins of Horse riding and the Development of Ancient Central Asian
Nomadic Riding Harnesses ............................... 304
N. A. Bokovenko
Petroglyphs and Sacred Spaces at Terekty Aulie, Central Kazakstan ......................................... 311
Kenneth Lymer